7.15.1. between

7.15.1.1. Summary

between is used for checking the specified value exists in the specific range. It is often used in combination with filter option in select.

7.15.1.2. Syntax

between has three or five parameters:

between(column_or_value, min, max)
between(column_or_value, min, min_border, max, max_border)

7.15.1.3. Usage

Here are a schema definition and sample data to show usage.

Execution example:

table_create Users TABLE_HASH_KEY ShortText
# [[0, 1337566253.89858, 0.000355720520019531], true]
column_create Users age COLUMN_SCALAR Int32
# [[0, 1337566253.89858, 0.000355720520019531], true]
table_create Ages TABLE_HASH_KEY Int32
# [[0, 1337566253.89858, 0.000355720520019531], true]
column_create Ages user_age COLUMN_INDEX Users age
# [[0, 1337566253.89858, 0.000355720520019531], true]
load --table Users
[
{"_key": "Alice",  "age": 12},
{"_key": "Bob",    "age": 13},
{"_key": "Calros", "age": 15},
{"_key": "Dave",   "age": 16},
{"_key": "Eric",   "age": 20},
{"_key": "Frank",  "age": 21}
]
# [[0, 1337566253.89858, 0.000355720520019531], 6]

Here is a query to show users who match PG-13 rating (MPAA).

Execution example:

select Users --filter 'between(age, 13, "include", 16, "include")'
# [
#   [
#     0,
#     1337566253.89858,
#     0.000355720520019531
#   ],
#   [
#     [
#       [
#         3
#       ],
#       [
#         [
#           "_id",
#           "UInt32"
#         ],
#         [
#           "_key",
#           "ShortText"
#         ],
#         [
#           "age",
#           "Int32"
#         ]
#       ],
#       [
#         2,
#         "Bob",
#         13
#       ],
#       [
#         3,
#         "Calros",
#         15
#       ],
#       [
#         4,
#         "Dave",
#         16
#       ]
#     ]
#   ]
# ]

It returns 13, 14, 15 and 16 years old users.

between function accepts not only a column but also a value.

If you specify a value as the 1st parameter, it checks whether the value is included or not. If the value matches the specified range, the select returns all the records because the between function returns true. If it doesn’t match the specified range, the select returns no records because the between function returns false.

Execution example:

select Users --filter 'between(14, 13, "include", 16, "include")'

In the above case, it returns all the records because 14 exists in between 13 and 16. This behavior is used for checking the specified value exists or not in the table.

7.15.1.4. Parameters

7.15.1.4.1. Required parameters

There are three required parameters column_or_value, min and max.

7.15.1.4.1.1. column_or_value

Specifies a column or value.

7.15.1.4.1.2. min

Specifies the minimal border value of the range. The range is inclusive by default but you can control the behavior that the value of min is included or excluded with min_border parameter.

7.15.1.4.1.3. max

Specifies the maximum border value of the range. The range is inclusive by default but you can control the behavior that the value of max is included or excluded with max_border parameter.

7.15.1.4.2. Optional parameter

There are two optional parameters min_border and max_border.

7.15.1.4.2.1. min_border

Specifies whether the specified range contains the value of min or not. The value of min_border must be either “include” or “exclude”. If it is “include”, min value is included. If it is “exclude”, min value is not included.

7.15.1.4.2.2. max_border

Specifies whether the specified range contains the value of max or not. The value of max_border must be either “include” or “exclude”. If it is “include”, max value is included. If it is “exclude”, max value is not included.

7.15.1.4.2.3. Return value

between returns whether the column value exists in the specified range or not. If a record matches the specified range, it returns true. Otherwise, it returns false.