7.3.65. tokenize

7.3.65.1. Summary

tokenize command tokenizes text by the specified tokenizer. It is useful to debug tokenization.

7.3.65.2. Syntax

This command takes many parameters.

tokenizer and string are required parameters. Others are optional:

tokenize tokenizer
         string
         [normalizer=null]
         [flags=NONE]
         [mode=ADD]
         [token_filters=NONE]

7.3.65.3. Usage

Here is a simple example.

Execution example:

tokenize TokenBigram "Fulltext Search"
# [
#   [
#     0,
#     1337566253.89858,
#     0.000355720520019531
#   ],
#   [
#     {
#       "position": 0,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "Fu"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 1,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "ul"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 2,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "ll"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 3,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "lt"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 4,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "te"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 5,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "ex"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 6,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "xt"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 7,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "t "
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 8,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": " S"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 9,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "Se"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 10,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "ea"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 11,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "ar"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 12,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "rc"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 13,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "ch"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 14,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "h"
#     }
#   ]
# ]

It has only required parameters. tokenizer is TokenBigram and string is "Fulltext Search". It returns tokens that is generated by tokenizing "Fulltext Search" with TokenBigram tokenizer. It doesn't normalize "Fulltext Search".

7.3.65.4. Parameters

This section describes all parameters. Parameters are categorized.

7.3.65.4.1. Required parameters

There are required parameters, tokenizer and string.

7.3.65.4.1.1. tokenizer

Specifies the tokenizer name. tokenize command uses the tokenizer that is named tokenizer.

See Tokenizers about built-in tokenizers.

Here is an example to use built-in TokenTrigram tokenizer.

Execution example:

tokenize TokenTrigram "Fulltext Search"
# [
#   [
#     0,
#     1337566253.89858,
#     0.000355720520019531
#   ],
#   [
#     {
#       "position": 0,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "Ful"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 1,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "ull"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 2,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "llt"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 3,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "lte"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 4,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "tex"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 5,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "ext"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 6,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "xt "
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 7,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "t S"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 8,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": " Se"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 9,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "Sea"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 10,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "ear"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 11,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "arc"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 12,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "rch"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 13,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "ch"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 14,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "h"
#     }
#   ]
# ]

If you want to use other tokenizers, you need to register additional tokenizer plugin by register command. For example, you can use KyTea based tokenizer by registering tokenizers/kytea.

7.3.65.4.1.2. string

Specifies any string which you want to tokenize.

If you want to include spaces in string, you need to quote string by single quotation (') or double quotation (").

Here is an example to use spaces in string.

Execution example:

tokenize TokenBigram "Groonga is a fast fulltext earch engine!"
# [
#   [
#     0,
#     1337566253.89858,
#     0.000355720520019531
#   ],
#   [
#     {
#       "position": 0,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "Gr"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 1,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "ro"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 2,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "oo"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 3,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "on"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 4,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "ng"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 5,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "ga"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 6,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "a "
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 7,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": " i"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 8,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "is"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 9,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "s "
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 10,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": " a"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 11,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "a "
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 12,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": " f"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 13,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "fa"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 14,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "as"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 15,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "st"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 16,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "t "
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 17,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": " f"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 18,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "fu"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 19,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "ul"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 20,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "ll"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 21,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "lt"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 22,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "te"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 23,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "ex"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 24,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "xt"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 25,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "t "
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 26,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": " e"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 27,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "ea"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 28,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "ar"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 29,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "rc"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 30,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "ch"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 31,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "h "
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 32,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": " e"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 33,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "en"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 34,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "ng"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 35,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "gi"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 36,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "in"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 37,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "ne"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 38,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "e!"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 39,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "!"
#     }
#   ]
# ]

7.3.65.4.2. Optional parameters

There are optional parameters.

7.3.65.4.2.1. normalizer

Specifies the normalizer name. tokenize command uses the normalizer that is named normalizer. Normalizer is important for N-gram family tokenizers such as TokenBigram.

Normalizer detects character type for each character while normalizing. N-gram family tokenizers use character types while tokenizing.

Here is an example that doesn't use normalizer.

Execution example:

tokenize TokenBigram "Fulltext Search"
# [
#   [
#     0,
#     1337566253.89858,
#     0.000355720520019531
#   ],
#   [
#     {
#       "position": 0,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "Fu"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 1,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "ul"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 2,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "ll"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 3,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "lt"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 4,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "te"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 5,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "ex"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 6,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "xt"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 7,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "t "
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 8,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": " S"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 9,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "Se"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 10,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "ea"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 11,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "ar"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 12,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "rc"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 13,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "ch"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 14,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "h"
#     }
#   ]
# ]

All alphabets are tokenized by two characters. For example, Fu is a token.

Here is an example that uses normalizer.

Execution example:

tokenize TokenBigram "Fulltext Search" NormalizerAuto
# [
#   [
#     0,
#     1337566253.89858,
#     0.000355720520019531
#   ],
#   [
#     {
#       "position": 0,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "fulltext"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 1,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "search"
#     }
#   ]
# ]

Continuous alphabets are tokenized as one token. For example, fulltext is a token.

If you want to tokenize by two characters with noramlizer, use TokenBigramSplitSymbolAlpha.

Execution example:

tokenize TokenBigramSplitSymbolAlpha "Fulltext Search" NormalizerAuto
# [
#   [
#     0,
#     1337566253.89858,
#     0.000355720520019531
#   ],
#   [
#     {
#       "position": 0,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "fu"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 1,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "ul"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 2,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "ll"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 3,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "lt"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 4,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "te"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 5,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "ex"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 6,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "xt"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 7,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "t"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 8,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "se"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 9,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "ea"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 10,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "ar"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 11,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "rc"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 12,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "ch"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 13,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "h"
#     }
#   ]
# ]

All alphabets are tokenized by two characters. And they are normalized to lower case characters. For example, fu is a token.

7.3.65.4.2.2. flags

Specifies a tokenization customize options. You can specify multiple options separated by "|". For example, NONE|ENABLE_TOKENIZED_DELIMITER.

Here are available flags.

Flag Description
NONE Just ignored.
ENABLE_TOKENIZED_DELIMITER Enables tokenized delimiter. See Tokenizers about tokenized delimiter details.

Here is an example that uses ENABLE_TOKENIZED_DELIMITER.

Execution example:

tokenize TokenDelimit "Full￾text Sea￾crch" NormalizerAuto ENABLE_TOKENIZED_DELIMITER
# [
#   [
#     0,
#     1337566253.89858,
#     0.000355720520019531
#   ],
#   [
#     {
#       "position": 0,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "full"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 1,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "text sea"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 2,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "crch"
#     }
#   ]
# ]

TokenDelimit tokenizer is one of tokenized delimiter supported tokenizer. ENABLE_TOKENIZED_DELIMITER enables tokenized delimiter. Tokenized delimiter is special character that indicates token border. It is U+FFFE. The character is not assigned any character. It means that the character is not appeared in normal string. So the character is good character for this puropose. If ENABLE_TOKENIZED_DELIMITER is enabled, the target string is treated as already tokenized string. Tokenizer just tokenizes by tokenized delimiter.

7.3.65.4.2.3. mode

Specifies a tokenize mode. If the mode is specified ADD, the text is tokenized by the rule that adding a document. If the mode is specified GET, the text is tokenized by the rule that searching a document. If the mode is omitted, the text is tokenized by the ADD mode.

The default mode is ADD.

Here is an example to the ADD mode.

Execution example:

tokenize TokenBigram "Fulltext Search" --mode ADD
# [
#   [
#     0,
#     1337566253.89858,
#     0.000355720520019531
#   ],
#   [
#     {
#       "position": 0,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "Fu"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 1,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "ul"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 2,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "ll"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 3,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "lt"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 4,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "te"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 5,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "ex"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 6,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "xt"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 7,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "t "
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 8,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": " S"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 9,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "Se"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 10,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "ea"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 11,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "ar"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 12,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "rc"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 13,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "ch"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 14,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "h"
#     }
#   ]
# ]

The last alphabet is tokenized by one character.

Here is an example to the GET mode.

Execution example:

tokenize TokenBigram "Fulltext Search" --mode GET
# [
#   [
#     0,
#     1337566253.89858,
#     0.000355720520019531
#   ],
#   [
#     {
#       "position": 0,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "Fu"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 1,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "ul"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 2,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "ll"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 3,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "lt"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 4,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "te"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 5,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "ex"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 6,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "xt"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 7,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "t "
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 8,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": " S"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 9,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "Se"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 10,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "ea"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 11,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "ar"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 12,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "rc"
#     },
#     {
#       "position": 13,
#       "force_prefix": false,
#       "value": "ch"
#     }
#   ]
# ]

The last alphabet is tokenized by two characters.

7.3.65.4.2.4. token_filters

Specifies the token filter names. tokenize command uses the tokenizer that is named token_filters.

See Token filters about token filters.

7.3.65.5. Return value

tokenize command returns tokenized tokens. Each token has some attributes except token itself. The attributes will be increased in the feature:

[HEADER, tokens]

HEADER

See Output format about HEADER.

tokens

tokens is an array of token. Token is an object that has the following attributes.

Name Description
value Token itself.
position The N-th token.

7.3.65.6. See also